Bowel cancer (Colorectal cancer) in Australia
The following material has been sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Colorectal cancer incorporates ICD-10 cancer codes C18 (Malignant neoplasm of colon), C19 (Malignant neoplasm of rectosigmoid junction) and C20 (Malignant neoplasm of the rectum).
Estimated number of new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed in 2018
17,004 = 9,294 males + 7,709 females
Estimated % of all new cancer cases diagnosed in 2018
Estimated number of deaths from colorectal cancer in 2018
4,129 = 2,124 males + 2,005 females
Estimated % of all deaths from cancer in 2018
Chance of surviving at least 5 years (2010–2014)
People living with colorectal cancer at the end of 2012 (diagnosed in the 5 year period 2009 to 2013)
New cases of colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer was the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia in 2014 . It is estimated that it will become the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in 2018 (Table 1).
In 2014, there were 15,253 new cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed in Australia (8,368 males and 6,886 females). In 2018, it is estimated that 17,004 new cases of colorectal cancer will be diagnosed in Australia (9,294 males and 7,709 females).
In 2014, the age–standardised incidence rate was 57 cases per 100,000 persons (67 for males and 49 for females). In 2018, it is estimated that the age–standardised incidence rate will remain at 58 cases per 100,000 persons (67 for males and 49 for females. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer is expected to generally increase with age for both males and females (Figure 1).
In 2018, it is estimated that the risk of an individual being diagnosed with colorectal cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 11 for males and 1 in 15 for females.
|Cancer type||New cases 2018||% of all new cancers 2018|
Deaths from colorectal cancer
In 2015, colorectal cancer was the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Australia. It is estimated that it will remain the second most common cause of death from cancer in 2018 (Table 2).
In 2015, there were 4,346 deaths from colorectal cancer in Australia (2,358 males and 1,988 females). In 2018, it is estimated that this will increase to 4,129 deaths (2,124 males and 2,005 females).
In 2015, the age–standardised mortality rate was 16 deaths per 100,000 persons (19 for males and 13 for females). In 2018, it is estimated that the age–standardised mortality rate will be 14 deaths per 100,000 persons (15 for males and 12 for females). The mortality rate of colorectal cancer will generally increase with age (Figure 1).
In 2018, it is estimated that the risk of an individual dying from colorectal cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 49 males and 1 in 63 females).
The number of deaths from colorectal cancer increased from 2,500 (1,218 males and 1,282 females) in 1968 to 4,346 in 2015. Over the same period, the age–standardised mortality rate decreased from 31 deaths per 100,000 persons (36 for males and 28 for females) in 1968 to 16 deaths per 100,000 in 2015 (Figure 2).
|Cancer type||Number of deaths 2018||% of all cancer deaths 2017|
Figure 1: Estimated age-specific incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer, by sex, 2017
Source: AIHW .
Figure 2: Age-standardised incidence rates for colorectal cancer 1982–2013 and age-standardised mortality rates for colorectal cancer 1968–2014, by sex
Source: AIHW .
Survival from colorectal cancer
In 2010-2014, individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a 70[NS1] % of surviving for 5 years compared to their counterparts in the general Australian population.
Between 1984–1988 and 2009–2013, 5-year relative survival from colorectal cancer improved from 50% to 69%.
Figure 3: 5-year relative survival from bowel cancer, 1984–1988 to 2009–2013
Source: AIHW .
Survivorship population for colorectal cancer
The survivorship population is measured using prevalence data. Prevalence refers to the number of people alive who have previously been diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
The prevalence for 5 and 10 years given below are the number of people living with colorectal cancer at the end of 2013 who had been diagnosed in the preceding 5 and 10 years respectively.
At the end of 2013, there were 53,172 people living who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the previous 5 years and 86,923 people who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the previous 10 years).
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD–10)
Cancer is classified by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD–10). This is a statistical classification, published by the World Health Organization, in which each morbid condition is assigned a unique code according to established criteria.
Future estimations for incidence and mortality are a mathematical extrapolation of past trends. They assume that the most recent trends will continue into the future, and are intended to illustrate future changes that might reasonably be expected to occur if the stated assumptions continue to apply over the estimated period. Actual future cancer incidence and mortality rates may vary from these estimations. For instance, new screening programs may increase the detection of new cancer cases; new vaccination programs may decrease the risk of developing cancer; and improvements in treatment options may decrease mortality rates.
Cancer incidence indicates the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specified time period (usually one year).
The source of the incidence data is the 2014 version of the Australian Cancer Database (ACD), AIHW. The ACD is compiled by the AIHW from data provided by the state and territory cancer registries.
The ACD currently contains data on all cases of cancer diagnosed from 1982 to 2013 for all states and territories; for 2014, it contains data for all jurisdictions except New South Wales.
Estimates of national incidence in 2014–2018 were calculated using the same approach as used to estimate 2013 incidence for NSW. The 10 years of incidence data used as the baseline were 2004–2013. The ABS population projection series 29(B) was used for 2016–2018 estimating incidence.
Cancer mortality refers to the number of deaths occurring during a specified time period (usually one year) for which the underlying cause of death is cancer.
The source of the mortality data is the National Mortality Database (NMD), AIHW. Cause of Death Unit Record File (CODURF) data are provided to the AIHW by the Registries of Births, Deaths and Marriages and the National Coronial Information System (managed by the Victorian Department of Justice) and include cause of death coded by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
The 2016–2018 estimates for mortality were based on the 2013 NMD, and used joinpoint projections analyses that included 1997–2013 data for males and 2006–2013 data for femaleS.
Prevalence refers to the number or proportion (of cases, instances, and so forth) in a population at a given time.
Prevalence of cancer refers to the number of people alive with a prior diagnosis of cancer at a given time. It is distinct from incidence, which is the number of new cancers diagnosed within a given period of time. The longest period for which it is possible to calculate prevalence using the available national data (from 1982 to 2013) is currently 31 years so this is used to provide an estimate of the ‘total’ prevalence of cancer as at the end of 2013, noting that people diagnosed with cancer before 1982 aren’t included.
Age standardised rates
Incidence and mortality rates expressed per 100,000 population are age–standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017. Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: Colorectal cancer. Canberra: AIHW. www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books.
- AIHW 2017. Cancer in Australia 2017. Cancer series no. 101. Cat. No. CAN 100. Canberra: AIHW.